Neco 2023 Government








Neco 2023 government answer

(i) Political Instability: The Action Group crises led to a period of political instability in Nigeria. The conflict within the party resulted in factionalism and infighting, weakening the overall political structure. The government was unable to effectively address pressing issues and provide stable governance, creating a sense of uncertainty and distrust among the population.

(ii) Regional Divisions: The crises exacerbated regional divisions within Nigeria. The Action Group had strong support in the Western region, and the internal conflicts intensified the divide between the Western region and other regions of the country. This further heightened ethnic and regional tensions, making it challenging to foster national unity and cooperation.

(iii) Decline of the Action Group: The crises significantly weakened the Action Group as a political force. The party splintered into factions, leading to a loss of public confidence and electoral support. The internal power struggles and divisions within the party contributed to its decline and eventual marginalization in Nigerian politics.

(iv) Rise of Military Intervention: The crises created a power vacuum and a perception of political instability. This provided an opportunity for the military to intervene in the political affairs of Nigeria. The subsequent military coups in 1966 and the subsequent military rule that followed were influenced, in part, by the fragility of the political system resulting from the Action Group crises.

(v) Erosion of Democratic Processes: The Action Group crises highlighted the fragility of Nigeria’s democratic processes. The breakdown of trust and the use of violence within the party undermined the principles of democracy, such as fair elections and peaceful transitions of power. This erosion of democratic values had long-lasting implications for Nigeria’s governance and political system.

(vi) Socioeconomic Impact.


(i)Lobbying: The use of direct or indirect communication with policymakers to influence policy decisions or legislation.

(iii)Public Demonstrations: Pressure groups often organize protests, rallies, and public demonstrations to raise public awareness about their agenda and build support.

(iii)Litigation: Pressure groups pursue legal action to challenge government policies or regulations that conflict with their interests.

(iv)Boycotts: Pressure groups may organize boycotts of products or businesses that do not support their interests or values.

(v)Grassroots Mobilization: Pressure groups may engage in grassroots mobilization to build a coalition of supporters and allies who work together to achieve common goals.

(vii)Media Campaigns: Pressure groups may use media campaigns to raise awareness about their objectives and mobilize a larger audience in support of their cause.


(i)Merit-Based Appointments: It is essential to have a transparent and merit-based appointment process that is focused on the qualifications and experience of candidates rather than their political affiliations.

(ii)Civil Service Codes of Conduct: The establishment of codes of conduct that require civil servants to act impartially and professionally, irrespective of political affiliations.

(iii)Civil Service Commissions: The introduction of independent civil service commissions that oversee appointments, promotions, transfers, and dismissals of civil servants.

(iv)Professional Training: The provision of professional training for civil servants to enhance their skills and knowledge in their areas of expertise, and provide guidelines on ethics and values.

(v)Performance Evaluation: The development of a performance evaluation system that judges performance based on results achieved rather than political loyalty.

(vi)Protection of Civil Servants:

NECO government


Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided and shared between a central authority and constituent political units, such as states or provinces. It establishes a dual sovereignty structure, where the central government and the regional governments each have their respective powers and responsibilities. Federalism allows for a distribution of power that aims to balance the interests of both the central government and the regional units.


i) Representation and Participation: Creating new states within a federation allows for a more inclusive and representative political system. It ensures that diverse regions or communities have a voice and can actively participate in decision-making processes at both the regional and national levels. State creation can help address regional imbalances and promote a sense of belonging and identity among different groups within a country.

(ii) Decentralization of Power: By creating new states, power is decentralized and shared among multiple regional entities. This can prevent the concentration of power in a single central authority and promote local governance. Decentralization allows for more effective and responsive administration, as regional governments can address local issues and priorities more directly.

(iii) Regional Development and Resource Allocation: State creation can be motivated by the need to promote balanced regional development and ensure equitable distribution of resources. It allows for specific regions to have greater control over their own resources and development plans. This can lead to focused development initiatives, tailored to the specific needs and priorities of each region, thus reducing regional disparities.

(iv) Cultural and Linguistic Autonomy: Creating states within a federation can provide protection and autonomy for distinct cultural, linguistic, or ethnic communities. It allows for the preservation and promotion of local languages, customs, tradition


(i) Emir/Sarki: The Emir or Sarki was the supreme executive authority in the Hausa Fulani administration. Their duties included maintaining law and order, overseeing the administration, and making decisions on political, economic, and social matters. They had the power to enforce policies and resolve disputes within their jurisdiction.

(ii) Waziri: The Waziri served as the prime minister or chief advisor to the Emir/Sarki. They were responsible for providing counsel, guidance, and recommendations on governance matters. The Waziri played a crucial role in the decision-making process and assisted in implementing policies and managing the administrative affairs of the kingdom.

(iii) Madawaki: The Madawaki was a high-ranking officer responsible for coordinating the military forces of the kingdom. Their duties included organizing and leading the army during times of war or conflict. The Madawaki worked closely with the Emir/Sarki to ensure the security and defense of the kingdom.

(iv) Dan Iyan: The Dan Iyan was the chief courtier or chamberlain in the Hausa Fulani administration. They acted as the personal attendant to the Emir/Sarki and managed the affairs of the royal court. Their duties included organizing court proceedings, maintaining protocol, and ensuring the smooth functioning of the Emir’s household.

(v) Galadima: The Galadima was an important administrative officer responsible for overseeing the affairs of the province or district within the kingdom. Their duties included collecting taxes, maintaining public infrastructure, settling disputes, and implementing the policies and directives of the Emir/Sarki at the local level.

(vi) Dogari: The Dogari was in charge of the treasury and finance of the kingdom. They managed the collection of taxes, controlled the kingdom’s resources, and ensured proper accounting and financial management. The Dogari played a crucial role in maintaining the economic stability and prosperity of the kingdom.

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