A Constitution is a fundamental and supreme body of laws that serves as the foundation for a country’s governance and legal system. It outlines the structure of the government, defines the rights and responsibilities of citizens, and sets the framework for the functioning of various institutions. Constitutions can be written or unwritten and are designed to ensure stability, order, and protection of citizens’ rights and freedoms.



(i) Federalism: The 1999 Constitution establishes Nigeria as a federal republic comprising 36 states and one Federal Capital Territory (FCT). It distributes powers between the central (federal) government and the state governments, delineating their respective spheres of authority. Certain matters, such as defense, foreign affairs, and currency, are within the exclusive purview of the federal government, while other issues, like education and health, fall under the states’ jurisdiction.

(ii) Separation of Powers: The Constitution adheres to the principle of separation of powers, creating three distinct branches of government: the Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary. Each branch has specific functions and responsibilities to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful. This system ensures a system of checks and balances, enhancing accountability and preventing abuses of power.


(iii) Fundamental Human Rights: The 1999 Constitution includes a chapter on Fundamental Human Rights, which guarantees various rights and freedoms to Nigerian citizens. These rights encompass civil, political, economic, social, and cultural aspects. Some of the rights protected include the right to life, freedom of speech and expression, right to education, and protection from discrimination. Citizens can seek redress through the courts if their rights are violated.

(iv) Bicameral Legislature: The Nigerian National Assembly, which is the country’s legislative body, consists of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The bicameral system allows for more comprehensive deliberations on proposed legislation and ensures representation for various groups and regions within the country. The Senate represents the states, with each state having three senators, while the House of Representatives represents constituencies based on population.

(v) Executive Powers: The President of Nigeria is the head of state, head of government, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is elected through a popular vote and can serve a maximum of two four-year terms. The President is responsible for executing and implementing the laws, formulating policies, and appointing members of the federal executive council.

(vi) Judicial Independence: The Constitution establishes an independent judiciary in Nigeria. The judiciary has the power of judicial review, allowing it to interpret the Constitution and declare laws and actions of the government unconstitutional if they violate its provisions. This independence is essential for upholding the rule of law and protecting the rights of citizens

(vii) National Symbols and Celebrations: Celebrating national holidays, displaying national symbols, and promoting national anthem singing in schools instills a sense of pride and belonging to the nation. These activities emphasize common values and shared history.


(i) Reduced Unemployment: Youth empowerment equips young individuals with relevant skills and knowledge, making them more employable in various sectors of the economy. As more young people gain employment or create their businesses, the overall unemployment rate in the country decreases.

(ii) Economic Growth and Innovation: Empowered youth are more likely to engage in entrepreneurial activities and start new ventures. These initiatives can lead to innovation, increased productivity, and economic growth, contributing to Nigeria’s economic development.

(iii) Poverty Alleviation: With increased access to skill development and entrepreneurship training, young people can generate income and lift themselves and their families out of poverty. Empowering youth to become financially independent helps reduce poverty levels in the country.

(iv) Social Stability: When young people have access to skill development and meaningful employment opportunities, they are less likely to engage in criminal activities or participate in social unrest. Youth empowerment fosters social stability and harmony within communities.

(v) Human Capital Development: Investing in youth empowerment skills enhances the country’s human capital. A skilled and knowledgeable young population can contribute to the country’s productivity and competitiveness in the global market.

(vi) Youth Participation in Decision-Making: Empowered youth are more likely to participate in civic and political activities. They become active citizens who engage in community development, advocate for their rights, and contribute to policy formulation and implementation.

(vii) Technology Advancement and Digitalization: Equipping Nigerian youth with digital and technological skills empowers them to leverage technology for various purposes, including education, entrepreneurship, and communication. This can drive technological advancements and digitalization across different sectors of the economy


Orderliness is defined as a conscious action achieved through an organized, thoughtful, serene, diligent and systematic manner towards achieving specified goals through the following of laid down procedures, principles, standards or rules. It serves as a cornerstone for the development of any society.


(i)Obedience to traffic light, its rules and regulations; As simple as this may look, it can prevent a number of unnecessary deaths if adhered to. Unfortunately, road accidents had resulted into more deaths in societies where traffic lights are absent. The act of obeying traffic light and constituted road management officials will encourage an easy and safe movement for motorist.

(ii)Creating and joining a queue when required; Queueing is one way of achieving orderliness when a large number of people require services rendered by a few persons or machines. In this regard, one will need to wait for his or her turn through a queue. Examples of places where queuing may be required are Automated Teller Machine (ATM) points, petrol stations and bus stations.

(iii)Having an organized protest by pressure groups; An instance is the EndSars pressure group whose ordered and organized protest was suddenly disrupted by the Nigerian military. This happened at the Lekki toll gate on October 20, 2020 in Lagos, Nigeria. Unfortunately, innocent lives were lost.

(iv)Decorum in learning environments and other appropriate places; Decorum is an important requirement in learning environments. It is also crucial within organizations and offices so as to enable the staff (workers) concentrate fully on their job. In other words an academic environment decorum may be observed in the form of silence, sitting arrangements.


Civic education is the process of educating individuals on their rights, responsibilities, and duties as citizens of a particular country. It helps individuals understand how their actions can impact their community and the country as a whole.


(i) Promotes active citizenship: Civic education helps individuals become active and responsible citizens who are knowledgeable about their rights and responsibilities.

(ii) Encourages political participation: It helps individuals understand the importance of political participation and how they can get involved in the political process to make a difference.

(iv) Enhances critical thinking skills: Civic education encourages individuals to think critically about social issues and to analyze information from different sources.

(iv) Fosters social cohesion: It promotes respect for diversity and helps individuals understand the importance of working together to achieve common goals, which fosters social cohesion



The rule of law is a principle that refers to the idea that everyone, including the government, is subject to the law and that no one is above the law. It ensures that laws are applied equally to all individuals and that the legal system is fair and transparent.


(i) Protects individual rights

(ii) Promotes social stability

(iii) Encourages economic growth

(iv) Prevents abuse of power


(i) Protects individual rights: It ensures that everyone is equal before the law and that their rights are protected.

(ii) Promotes social stability: It provides a framework for resolving disputes and conflicts in a peaceful manner, which promotes social stability.

(iii) Encourages economic growth: It creates a stable and predictable legal environment that encourages investment and economic growth.

(iv) Prevents abuse of power: It ensures that those in power are held accountable for their actions and that they do not abuse their power.


(i) Independent judiciary: It is important to have an independent judiciary that is free from political influence and can interpret and apply the law fairly.

(ii) Access to justice: Everyone should have access to legal representation and a fair trial, regardless of their social status or financial means.


Representative democracy is a form of government where citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf. These representatives are responsible for representing the interests and concerns of their constituents in the decision-making process.



(i) Elections

(ii) Separation of powers

(iii) Freedom of speech and expression

(iv) Protection of individual rights

(v) Pluralism and diversity



(i) Decision-making process: In direct democracy citizens participate directly in decision-making through popular votes referendums or initiatives. In contrast WHILE in indirect democracy citizens elect representatives who make decisions on their behalf.

(ii) Scope: Direct democracy is more suitable for small communities or issues of local concern where citizens can gather and participate directly WHILE Indirect democracy allows for larger-scale governance where representatives can effectively represent a larger population.

(iii) Efficiency: Direct democracy can be time-consuming and slower in reaching decisions due to the need for widespread citizen participation. WHILE Indirect democracy allows for more efficient decision-making due to the delegation of authority to elected representatives.

(iv) Expertise: Direct democracy relies on the collective judgment of citizens which may not always reflect the same level of expertise. WHILE In indirect democracy elected representatives can bring expertise and specialization to the decision-making process.

(v) Responsibility: In direct democracy citizens bear direct responsibility for decisions made collectively. WHILE In indirect democracy representatives are accountable to the citizens who elected them and can be held responsible for their decisions through periodic elections.

(vi) Protection of minority rights: Direct democracy without these safeguards can potentially lead to the tyranny of the majority where minority interests are overlooked. WHILE Indirect democracy incorporates institutional safeguards and checks and balances to protect minority rights.


Stigmatization refers to the process of labeling and discriminating against individuals or groups based on certain characteristics or attributes that are seen as deviating from societal norms. Stigmatization often results in negative stereotypes prejudices and social exclusion.



(i) social stigmatization

(ii) verbal stigmatization

(iii) Employment discrimination

(iv) Healthcare stigmatization

(v) Self stigmatization

(vi) Legal stigmatization



(i) Public education and awareness: Increasing public knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS through targeted campaigns educational programs and media can help dispel myths and misconceptions. It promotes understanding and reduces stigmatizing attitudes.

(ii) Promoting empathy and compassion: Encouraging empathy and compassion towards individuals living with HIV/AIDS can foster a supportive and inclusive society. By emphasizing shared humanity and challenging stereotypes people are more likely to show understanding and reduce stigmatizing behavior.

(iii)Empowering affected individuals: Empowering individuals living with HIV/AIDS to speak out share their stories and advocate for their rights helps to challenge stigmatization. By promoting self-advocacy and providing support networks affected individuals can regain control and counteract stigma.

(iv) Legal protection: Enacting and enforcing laws that protect individuals living with HIV/AIDS from discrimination and stigmatization is essential. These laws should address employment healthcare education housing and other areas where discrimination may occur.

(v) Engaging communities and key stakeholders: Collaborating with community leaders healthcare providers educators and other stakeholders can help to address HIV-related stigma at the grassroots level. By involving multiple sectors and promoting dialogue attitudes can be changed and stigmatization reduced.

(vi) Counseling and psychosocial support: Providing counseling services and psychosocial support to individuals living with HIV/AIDS contributes to their emotional well-being and resilience. Support groups and counseling sessions can help individuals cope with stigma build self-esteem and develop strategies to navigate societal challenges.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *